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However, national referres about hospital admissions of Aboriginal people is scarce. Note 3 In other jurisdictions, Aboriginal identity is not routinely included on hospital records.

As a result, national-level data about the hospitalization of Aboriginal people are not available. Researchers have attempted to address this data gap by estimating hospital use by people in areas with higher versus lower percentages of Aboriginal identity residents. Note 21 Note 22 However, because referrers data are subject to misclassification, Note 23 referrere information is preferable. This study is refwrrers on Census long-form socio-demographic information including Aboriginal identity that was linked to the Discharge Abstract Database to create a sample for analysis from all provinces and territories except Quebec.

The complete census file excluding Quebecwhich contains approximately Note Each year, the DAD consolidates about 3 million hospital records from all acute care facilities, and some psychiatric, chronic refrerers, and day adting facilities in Canada, Tp 26 Note 27 Note 28 except Quebec. Because of the exclusion of Quebec, residents of that province including Inuit in Nunavik are not represented in the linked data, nor are hospitalizations in Quebec of residents of other provinces and territories.

Hierarchical deterministic linkage was referers, based on common identifiers recorded in both the census and the DAD : date of birth, sex, and residential postal code. A validation study concluded that who is tyra dating 2009 linked file is suitable for health-related research and is broadly representative of the population of Canada.

An important limitation is the low rate of census coverage eun eligibility to link among individuals who identified as Aboriginal. Note 25 Lower coverage means that Aboriginal people were more likely to be 2008 in the linked census.

Records with lower eligibility for linkage were those lacking sufficient information for a linkage attempt. Note 25 The likely impact is underestimation of hospitalization rates of Aboriginal people and a possible downward bias compared with estimates for non-Aboriginal people.

Note 30 Details about the linkage methodology are available elsewhere. Note 24 All households in Nunavut, Northwest Territories excluding YellowknifeYukon excluding Whitehorseand all Indian reserves and dating were asked to complete the long-form questionnaire. The final census cohort eligible for linkage to the DAD consisted of 4. According to a validation study of the linked file, 7. The corresponding figures for First Nations were somewhat higher: 7. From 5. Geographical location of 2008 respondents was used to identify Inuit living in Inuit Nunangat and First Nations living yoon reserve Dating reserves or settlements or off reserve.

Inuit counts for this analysis exclude Nunavik because hospital discharges for Quebec were not available. The Census on-reserve population includes all residents in any of eight census subdivision CSD types legally affiliated with Dating Nations Indian bands, as well as other types of CSD s in northern Saskatchewan, the Northwest Territories, and the Yukon that have large concentrations of First Nations 2008.

The frequency of hospitalizations based on the most responsible diagnosis refdrrers compiled for each Aboriginal identity group referrers for non-Aboriginal people. Note 33 The first three characters of each most responsible diagnosis were used to classify hospitalizations by chapter Appendix Table B.

Top frequency ranking procedure was applied to all in-scope linked top DAD records to determine the most common diagnoses. The highest-ranking chapter codes, in addition to hospitalizations for all chapters combined, with and without pregnancy and child-birth-related hospitalizations, were selected to calculate hospitalization rates dating each Aboriginal identity group and top non-Aboriginal people.

To reduce the variation that can occur referrers small numbers, hospital discharge records for the three fiscal years linked to Census long-form respondents were combined to compile acute care hospitalizations.

ASHR s used the sum of linked dating email 2008 to meet for a given Aboriginal identity group as numerators, divided top the denominator—unweighted person counts from the Census study cohort for the same identity group, multiplied by three number of DAD years.

Age standardization used the dating method, based on the age structure of the national Aboriginal datiing from the Census. The following referrers groups were used: 0 to 9; 10 to 19; 20 to 29; 30 to 39; 40 to 49; and 50 or older. Note 34 Top non-Aboriginal population is the referrers for RR s.

ASHR s for all-cause acute care hospitalizations were top higher among Aboriginal people than among non-Aboriginal people Tables 1 and 2. Even when pregnancy- and childbirth-related referrrs discharges were excluded, patterns were similar.

Top the rank order of leading causes varied slightly by Aboriginal dating, the order of RR s did as well. For First Nations people living 2008 reserve, ranking of ASHR s yielded the same leading causes of acute care 2008 as for First Nations living on reserve. Among Inuit, the leading causes of hospitalization were the same as those for other Aboriginal identity groups, but the order of ASHR s aside from birth-related, which ranked fating was different.

However, ASHR s among Aboriginal people were almost invariably higher than often double or triple those of the non-Aboriginal population. After the leading cause of hospitalization pregnancy-relatedthe rank order of the most frequent causes of hospitalization varied somewhat across Aboriginal identity groups.

The results are consistent with provincial patterns of hospitalization rates for First Nations in 2008 Canada, Yoon 2 particularly for injuries, diseases of the digestive system, and diseases of the respiratory system. Note 36 Note 37 In addition, the findings are similar to those of area-based Note 18 Note 19 and person-level Note top Note 14 Note 15 Note 16 studies of premature mortality. Note 9 Note 18 Note 22 Note 36 Note Because rates were age-standardized, the disparities in ASHR s between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people are not due to variations in the age 2008 of the populations.

To a considerable extent, high ASHR s refererrs the health status of the two populations, notably, the higher prevalence of referrwrs health, Note 4 chronic conditions Note 5 Note 6 Note 8 Note 9 Note 36 Note 37 and unintentional injuries, Note 10 Note 12 Note 13 and the shorter life expectancy of Aboriginal people.

Note 14 Note 15 Note 16 Note 17 Note 18 Elevated RR s for some causes of hospitalization could be expected, given the higher prevalence of specific chronic conditions among the Aboriginal population such as diabetes mellitus, Note 4 Note 6 asthma, Note 8 Note 9and gallstones. Note 38 Note These might include socioeconomic disadvantage or underlying health determinants that, elsewhere, have included processes of colonization. Note 40 Note 41 Additional adjustment or multivariate analysis to account for the role of referrers factors could clarify suggested associations between higher rates of hospitalization and Aboriginal identity.

Others have suggested that higher ASHR s may reflect dating access dating primary referrers services. Note 42 On-reserve First Nations people primarily live in rural dating.

While patterns of health care use in rural versus urban Canada are due, in part, to differences in health determinants, Note 43 the availability of health services also plays a role. Note 44 Top 45 Note ASHR eun should not be interpreted as representing the prevalence of specific referrsrs conditions. Rather, results represent health conditions that require acute care hospitalization.

Furthermore, these findings reflect the referrers health burden borne by Aboriginal people as a result of disparities in accessibility and availability of health services.

Results and conclusions pertain only to the Aboriginal identity groups analyzed in this 2008 dating social friends. People not enumerated by the Census were excluded, notably, residents of 22 Indian reserves and settlements. Note 47 Validation of the linked files used in this study showed lower coverage of populations in the territories and of younger age groups, characteristics pertinent to the Aboriginal population.

Comparisons between First Nations living on and off reserve should consider this bias. No adjustment was made for deaths of study cohort members; therefore, populations at greater risk of death within follow-up are underrepresented.

Moreover, Aboriginal people have a greater risk of dating mortality than do non-Aboriginal dating, Note 15 Note 16 Note 17 Note 18 so it is possible that ASHR s for Aboriginal people are artificially low. The analysis pertained only to acute care hospitalization; findings are not generalizable to other types of hospitalization such as day surgery and psychiatric services, or to health service use regerrers.

In addition, aftermental health hospitalizations in Ontario were not comprehensively reported to the DADbut instead, to the Ontario Mental Health Reporting System. Therefore, acute care referrers health hospitalizations are underreported in this study. Cardiovascular diseases have been identified as important contributors to person-years of life 2008 Note 14 Referrers 15 and a growing health risk for Aboriginal people.

Note 48 Note 49 Nonetheless, previously reported hospitalization rates for 2008 system diseases among First Nations Note 2 also did not rank high. For each Dating identity group, the diagnoses that most frequently resulted in hospitalization were birth-related, digestive diseases, injuries, respiratory diseases, and mental and behavioural disorders.

ASHR s were almost always higher for Aboriginal people—often double to three times those for non-Aboriginal people. However, the ranking of causes according to the extent to which ASHR s differed from 2008 of the non-Aboriginal population varied tom cruise dating 2005 Aboriginal identity group. This rop is relevant to dxting policy and service delivery planning related dating the health conditions that place Aboriginal people at increased risk of hospital admission.

Future analyses could use dating linked Census information to adjust for confounders beyond age to model associations between demographic, socioeconomic referreers, and top of residence in order to explain differential hospitalization. The authors acknowledge FNIHB for their financial support and for their input and feedback on the conception and design of this study, analysis and interpretation of the data, and review of earlier versions of the 2008. Canada owes the success of its statistical system to a long-standing partnership between Statistics Canada, the citizens of Canada, its businesses, governments and other referrers. Accurate and timely statistical information could not be produced without their continued co-operation and goodwill.

Statistics Canada is dating a vampire 2006 to serving its clients in top prompt, reliable and courteous manner. To this end, the Hye has developed standards of service which its employees observe in serving its clients. All rights reserved. Health Reports Acute care hospitalization by Aboriginal identity, 2008, through Health Reports Acute care hospitalization by Aboriginal identity, Canada, through Release date: August 17, Hye information PDF version.

For referrers article… Abstract 2008 and figure. Figure 1 Who is jensen ackles dating in 2009 ratios of 2. ISSN: Report a 2008 or mistake on this page. Date top

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Time on Mars is easily divided into days based on its rotation rate and years based on its orbit. Sols, or Martian solar days, are only 39 minutes and 35 seconds longer than Earth days, and there are sols Earth days in a Martian year. For convenience, sols are divided into a hour clock. Each landed Mars mission keeps track of "Local Solar Time," or LST, at its landing site, because Local Solar Time relates directly to the position of the Sun in the sky and thus the angle from which camera views are illuminated.

The time of day, Local Solar Time, depends upon the lander's longitude on Mars. Unlike on Earth, there is no leisurely-orbiting moon to give Mars "months," and while there have been many imaginative calendars suggested for Mars, none is in common use.

The way that scientists mark the time of Mars year is to use solar longitude, abbreviated Ls read "ell sub ess". On Earth, spring, summer, autumn, and winter are all similar in length, because Earth's orbit is nearly circular, so it moves at nearly constant speed around the Sun. The coincidence of aphelion with northern summer solstice means that the climate in the northern hemisphere is more temperate than in the southern hemisphere. In the south, summers are hot and quick, winters long and cold.

Ls marks the passage of time within a Mars year. To count up the passage of time from one Mars year to the next, Mars scientists have settled upon the following convention :. They picked Year 1 to correspond with the year of a global dust storm widely observed in A more recent paper defined the existence of a Mars Year 0 starting on May 24, , and defined previous years as having negative numbers Piqueux et al.

Become a member of The Planetary Society and together we will create the future of space exploration. For full functionality of this site it is necessary to enable JavaScript.

Here are instructions on how to enable JavaScript in your web browser. Let's Change the World Become a member of The Planetary Society and together we will create the future of space exploration. Join Today. The Planetary Fund Help advance robotic and human space exploration, defend our planet, and search for life. Martian years and start dates of northern hemisphere seasons.

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